With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Russia and Ukraine inherited the program.
Russia created the Russian Aviation and Space Agency, now known as the Roscosmos State Corporation, The theory of space exploration had a solid basis in the Russian Empire before the First World War with the writings of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), who published pioneering papers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and in 1929 introduced the concept of the multistaged rocket.
One can learn to speak a language, but until you know and understand the culture you will never truly be fluent in that language.
4 October 1957: Sputnik I was launched by the Soviet Union from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, becoming the first artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit, and kicking off the space race in earnest.
But while most of us could pop to a nearby shop, spare a thought for Russian cosmonaut Dr Valentina Tereshkova who only realised she was missing a vital part of her supplies when she was 144 miles away from the surface of the Earth.
Dr Tereshkova, became the first woman in space in 1963, and is the only woman to have ever taken part in a manned solo mission.
Tool Called Difficult to Handle Tass said the main goal of the space walk was to test a new general-purpose hand-operated tool designed ''to carry out complex technological operations.'' It added that ''the woman-cosmonaut took an active part in this work.'' Tass said that although the tool is weightless in space (it weighs 66 pounds on the earth), it is difficult to handle.
''The space suit is not elastic enough,'' the press agency added, ''and for each movement, a person expends much more energy than when back on the earth.